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Gabor Varadi
Android dev, `Zhuinden`, or ‘EpicPandaForce’ @ SO. Tinkers with Realm, dislikes multiple Activities/Fragment backstack.

Square has a library that most people don’t know about. It’s called Sunglasses Michael Kors Fiji MK1003 Gold 1004T5 58 Michael Kors wJNLk7YQH5
. Not a very descriptive name, and there isn’t all that much info about it on the Github page either.

And some example code:

And that you can install a to any :

It really doesn’t say anything about what it is, what it does, and how it should be used, right?

Well, in order to understand this problem, we must walk through the evolution of custom viewgroups, because this is, apparently, the next step.

Activity

Everybody knows Activities. They supposedly represent a single screen in the app, and is technically an “entry point” according to specific intent filters you can define.

In order to start a new Activity, you use an , like .

They also cannot be nested. Well okay, that’s not entirely true, there’s and , but they’re quite deprecated since API Level 11. We may as well pretend they don’t exist.

Activities display view groups with . People generally assumed that it only shows one particular type of viewgroup specified with its layout id (), and then if you ever needed a different screen, you’d just make a new Activity instead.

Then once you had to put two different screens on the same “page”, all hell broke loose.

Fragments

Fragments are, well, “fragments” of a screen. They display a custom viewgroup, and are managed by the inside the Activity. The is associated with a , which is associated with the “host Activity”.

They were designed primarily so that you can create “sub-screens” that function like “sub-activities”, inheriting all important lifecycle callbacks such as , , , and even more importantly .

They also add their own set of lifecycle callbacks, such as , , , , and .

You can create Fragments with .

Most of the time though, you just need to access the Activity you’re bound to, (typically done with ), and the pairs and .

That, and now with all the additional complexity, you can nest a Fragment inside a Fragment, by Cashmere Silk Scarf BAW by VIDA VIDA lIUMEZ
 — which can sometimes cause confusion in whether you need or .

One may ask, do we really NEED all these lifecycle callbacks in our “subview” inside the Activity?

We may also ask, if we can have “subviews” in our Activity, then why create multiple Activities in the first place?

Custom Viewgroups

You know what Activities and Fragments have in common? They display that are already inherently nestable ( and ), they’re all declared in XML, and they also have some nice callbacks.

Makes you wonder why we were trying to use them to show different screens in the first place, when you can just swap out views and get the same result.

We can extend the viewgroup of our choice ( , , , , etc.) and use the new custom viewgroup of our choice as whatever we’re inheriting from.

Because we use layout inflation using the to inflate the custom viewgroup, the views we bind in or are always guaranteed to exist in .

So in essence, we have something akin to , and callbacks out of the box.

Instead of , we can easily just , or .

But even though we’ve made a subscreen that’s no longer directly bound to a messy blob of unnecessary callbacks, orchestrated by the arcane  — there’s one thing that might still bother us.

The custom viewgroup is created via inflation, and it’s not a POJO. It has 4 constructors, and needs to extend an Android-specific class to work.

Coordinators

In order to detach ourselves from the confines of a Custom Viewgroup, we can move all “view controller” logic outside of the viewgroup itself, and attach it as a tag.

This is how it works:

So what happens is that you can create a Coordinator, which can be pretty much any POJO class, and can be attached to any custom viewgroup without having to extend it.

And with Coordinators, you receive a callback for and . in place of the original viewgroup’s and callbacks.

This Coordinator instance is then associated with the ViewGroup by storing it as a . This way, the coordinator can be obtained as , which is of course provided by class.

What is the benefit of this? Now that our class is a POJO, we can actually inject this class directly with Dagger, without having to specify a method in the Component.

With that, we’ve obtained the following benefits:

Conclusion

Personally, I like the direction that is taking. I’m not entirely sure if the and callbacks themselves are truly sufficient, but defining an and method of our own in our own class, then associating it with a isn’t exactly difficult either.

In return, we receive a POJO view controller that can be directly created and injected via Dagger, without need of creating 4 constructors and hard-wiring the custom viewgroup in its own XML file.

The new Coordinator approach works especially well if the navigation logic is detached from Activities/Fragments, and is moved to the Presenter layer. It makes for much cleaner code — application state transition isn’t something that the views should manage, after all.

I took coordinators on a test drive in https://github.com/Zhuinden/simple-stack/tree/master/simple-stack-example-mvp .

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To model NPP we specify a variant of the Richards ( 1959 ) growth model, widely used in forest growth modeling. The US wood pellet industry is growing rapidly, and much of the production is exported to the EU and UK. We therefore estimate the carbon cycle parameters from growth curves for temperate US forests reported by Smith et al ( 2006 ). We estimate the parameters of NPP jointly with those governing fluxes of CO 2 from biomass to soil and from each compartment to the atmosphere using nonlinear least squares and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods (supplementary material). The model fits the Smith et al growth curves closely: the mean absolute error relative to the mean ranges from 0.008%–0.065% for biomass and from 0.006%–0.074% for soils (figure 2 , table S2).

Figure 3. Change in atmospheric CO concentration resulting from displacement of coal by wood. Δ[CO] is relative to continued coal use. All scenarios show the change in atmospheric CO (ppmv) resulting from a single 1 EJ pulse of end-use energy from biomass used to displace coal in year 0. Top: south-central (SC) oak–hickory forest; bottom: SC managed shortleaf loblolly plantation. The bioenergy pulse causes an immediate increase in CO concentration (the initial carbon debt) in scenarios 2–5 due to lower combustion and processing efficiencies for wood compared to coal. The year in which ∆[CO] falls below zero is the carbon debt payback time. Supplement figure S3 shows the results for all eight forest types examined. S0: Benchmark showing impact of 1 EJ pulse of zero carbon energy. S1: Bioenergy assumed to have the same combustion and processing efficiency as coal, and the same supply chain emissions; with 25% of biomass removed from the land harvested through thinning. S2: Actual efficiencies and supply chain emissions for wood pellets; 25% of biomass harvested through thinning. S3: S2 with 95% of biomass harvested (clear cut). S4: S3 with clear cut and no regrowth of harvested land and no C released from soil stocks. S5: S4 with C released from soil stocks at the estimated fractional rate.

In the scenarios below, we adopt assumptions that favor bioenergy. Specifically, we assume bioenergy from wood pellets is used to offset coal, the most carbon intensive fossil fuel; if wood offsets power generated from natural gas its carbon debt would be much larger. Estimates of net CH 4 fluxes from forest biomass and soils are poorly constrained and considered to be insignificant in most global methane budgets (e.g. Ito and Inatomi 2012 , Saunois et al Womens Volume Pendant Necklace Dauphin bVfZh4RX
, Shoemaker et al 2014 ); we therefore assume them to be zero. We assume all land harvested for bioenergy is allowed to regrow without any fire (Buchholz et al 2016 ), erosion, disease, unplanned logging, or other ecological disturbances, including climate change impacts, that could limit regrowth or inject GHGs into the atmosphere beyond the direct impact of the bioenergy harvest. We further assume that the decline in coal use resulting from wood does not lower coal prices, increasing coal demand elsewhere, an effect estimated to be large (e.g. York 2012 ).

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In the 40 years since, almost everything about the program has changed, from the hosts, producers, editors and reporters to the length of the program, the equipment used and even the audience.

However there is one thing that remains the same: each show consists of the biggest stories of the day, thoughtful commentaries, insightful features on the quirky and the mainstream in arts and life, music and entertainment, all brought alive through sound.

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A week ago, Yeni Gonzalez was in an immigration detention center in Arizona more than 2,000 miles from her children.

On Tuesday, the 29-year-old stood outside the social services agency in New York City where she had just seen her kids for the first time in 45 days, clutching a blue and white lollipop in her hand.

"I feel very happy because I just saw my children, and my daughter gave me that lollipop," Gonzalez said in Spanish.

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The British government says it will ban conversion therapy, the controversial practice of trying to change sexual orientation. Patrick Strudwick's reporting helped galvanize the movement that resulted in the ban.

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Under the deal, migrants registered in other European Union countries will be held in transit centers as Germany negotiates their return. The country's rebellious interior minister had threatened to quit and pull his party from Angela Merkel's coalition government if the German chancellor did not take a harder line on asylum seekers.

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Industrial production of Paris green was initiated in Europe in the early 19th century. Impressionist and post-impressionist painters used different versions of the pigment to create their vivid masterpieces. This means that many museum pieces today contain the poison. In its heyday, all types of materials, even book covers and clothes, could be coated in Paris green for aesthetic reasons. Of course, continuous skin contact with the substance would lead to symptoms of exposure.

But by the second half of the 19th century, the toxic effects of the substance were more commonly known, and the arsenic variant stopped being used as a pigment and was more frequently used as a pesticide on farmlands. Other pigments were found to replace Paris green in paintings and the textile industry etc. In the mid 20th century, the use on farmlands was phased out as well.

Interestingly, the authors say the pigment wasn’t used for aesthetic purposes, as the paint was only used to cover parts of the books. A possible explanation is that the green paint was used to protect the books from insects and vermin.

In terms of the risk posed to the University of Southern Denmark researchers, Holck told Gizmodo that “there was no real danger,” and that the books had been stored in a storage facility and were not easily accessible.

“They were handled carefully, even before the discovery,” Holck told Gizmodo, cautioning that “archivists and researchers should react when in reasonable doubt whether an item could be poisonous.”

For safekeeping, the books were placed in individual cardboard boxes (with warning labels), and they’re now stored inside a well ventilated cabinet. The next step will be to digitize the books to minimize the need for handling.

Despite the poison, Holck said he was able to identify at least four Latin texts hidden within the bindings.

“This was also due to sharp eyes, and not just the X-rays,” he said.

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George Dvorsky

George is a senior staff reporter at Gizmodo.

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